For most formats (books, articles, AV material, etc) you generally have to contact the copyright holder for permission. The copyright holder can be any of the following:
- Film producer, etc.
Generally, first contact the publisher or distributor (for AV) first. If the publisher does not hold the copyright, it often negotiates permission on behalf of the copyright holder or it will let you know who to contact.
You can also contact a copyright clearance company which will, for a fee, obtain permission for you, such as: